Tuesday, December 22, 2009

howto install mod_security2 with apache2 in Ubuntu

here are many significant changes and enhancements in ModSecurity 2.x over the 1.x branch, including:
  • use core rules with various features
  • five processing phases: request headers, request body, response headers, response body, logging
  • per-rule transformation options (previously normalization was implicit and hard-coded). New transformation functions were added.
  • transaction variables. This can be used to store pieces of data, create a transaction anomaly score etc.
  • data persistence. It can be configured any way you want. Most people will want to use this feature to track IP addresses, application sessions, and application users).
  • support for anomaly scoring and basic event correlation (counters can be automatically decreased over time; variables can be expired).
  • support for web applications and session IDs.
  • regular expression back-references (allows one to create custom variables using transaction content).
  • many new functions that can be applied to the variables (where you could use only use regular expressions, previously).
  • XML support (parsing, validation, XPath).

Download mod_security

  • Download source from mod_security2 (you need to sign up to download).
There is currently no binary of mod_security 2.5.6 available for Ubuntu, so you need to compile it yourself.

Step by Step Ubuntu install guide

1) install g++ environment

apt-get install g++ doc-base autoconf automake1.9 bison bison libtool make

2) install preconditions for mod_security2

apt-get install apache2-threaded-dev libxml2-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev
  • try to run configure with missing libraries or header files
    ./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/bin/apxs2
    checking for strtol... yes
    configure: looking for Apache module support via DSO through APXS
    configure: error: couldn't find APXS
  • install apache apxs
    apt-get install apache2-threaded-dev
  • next error with configure: missing libxml2
    checking for libxml2 config script... no
    configure: *** libxml2 library not found.
    configure: error: libxml2 library is required
  • install libxml2-dev
    sudo apt-get install libxml2-dev
  • next error with configure: missing libcurl
    • this step is optional, only needed if you want to build mlogc, id did it.
      checking for libcurl config script... no
      configure: *** curl library not found.
      configure: NOTE: curl library is only required for building mlogc
  • install libcurl4-gnutls-dev
    sudo apt-get install libcurl4-gnutls-dev

3) final configure works, run make now

cd ~/modsecurity-apache_2.5.6/apache2
./configure --with-apx2=/usr/bin/apxs2

checking for g++... g++
checking for C++ compiler default output file name... a.out
checking whether the C++ compiler works... yes
checking whether we are cross compiling... no
checking for suffix of executables... 
checking for suffix of object files... o
checking whether we are using the GNU C++ compiler... yes
checking whether g++ accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc... gcc
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc option to accept ISO C89... none needed
checking how to run the C preprocessor... gcc -E
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking whether ln -s works... yes
checking whether make sets $(MAKE)... yes
checking for ranlib... ranlib
checking for perl... /usr/bin/perl
checking for grep that handles long lines and -e... /bin/grep
checking for egrep... /bin/grep -E
checking for ANSI C header files... yes
checking for sys/types.h... yes
checking for sys/stat.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... yes
checking for string.h... yes
checking for memory.h... yes
checking for strings.h... yes
checking for inttypes.h... yes
checking for stdint.h... yes
checking for unistd.h... yes
checking fcntl.h usability... yes
checking fcntl.h presence... yes
checking for fcntl.h... yes
checking limits.h usability... yes
checking limits.h presence... yes
checking for limits.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... (cached) yes
checking for string.h... (cached) yes
checking for unistd.h... (cached) yes
checking for an ANSI C-conforming const... yes
checking for inline... inline
checking for C/C++ restrict keyword... __restrict
checking for size_t... yes
checking whether struct tm is in sys/time.h or time.h... time.h
checking for uint8_t... yes
checking for stdlib.h... (cached) yes
checking for GNU libc compatible malloc... yes
checking for working memcmp... yes
checking for atexit... yes
checking for fchmod... yes
checking for getcwd... yes
checking for memset... yes
checking for strcasecmp... yes
checking for strchr... yes
checking for strdup... yes
checking for strerror... yes
checking for strncasecmp... yes
checking for strrchr... yes
checking for strstr... yes
checking for strtol... yes
configure: looking for Apache module support via DSO through APXS
configure: found apxs at /usr/bin/apxs2
configure: checking httpd version
configure: httpd is recent enough
checking for libpcre config script... /usr/bin/pcre-config
configure: using '-L/usr/lib -lpcre' for pcre Library
checking for libapr config script... /usr/bin/apr-1-config
configure: using ' -luuid -lrt -lcrypt  -lpthread -ldl' for apr Library
checking for libapr-util config script... /usr/bin/apu-1-config
configure: using ' -L/usr/lib -laprutil-1' for apu Library
checking for libxml2 config script... /usr/bin/xml2-config
configure: using '-lxml2' for libxml Library
checking for pkg-config script for lua library... no
configure: optional lua library not found
checking for libcurl config script... /usr/bin/curl-config
configure: using '-lcurl -lgssapi_krb5' for curl Library
configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating Makefile
config.status: creating build/apxs-wrapper
config.status: creating t/run-unit-tests.pl
config.status: creating t/run-regression-tests.pl
config.status: creating t/gen_rx-pm.pl
config.status: creating t/csv_rx-pm.pl
config.status: creating t/regression/server_root/conf/httpd.conf
config.status: creating ../tools/rules-updater.pl
config.status: creating mod_security2_config.h

4) install mod_security2

i did this manual way to control what is installed,
of course you can use "make install".
cp modsecurity-apache_2.5.6/apache2/.libs/mod_security2.so /usr/lib/apache2/modules
chmod 644 /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_security2.so
chown root:root /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_security2.so

5) include mod_security2 in the apache2 way

/etc/apache2/mods-available# cat mod_security2.load 
LoadModule security2_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_security2.so

/etc/apache2/mods-enabled# ln -s ../mods-available/mod_security2.load .

6) load apache2 mod_unique_id

  • run apachectl configtest and find the missing mod_unique_id error
    apachectl configtest
    less /var/log/apache2/error.log
    [Fri Aug 15 11:59:34 2008] [error] ModSecurity: ModSecurity requires mod_unique_id to be installed
  • fix it with a2enmod of make a manual symlink in mods-enabled
    a2enmod mod_unique_id

7) reload apache config

  • reload config and check error.log
    apachectl configtest
    apachectl graceful
    less /var/log/apache2/error.log
after reloading apache, make test to you webserver and check access.log and error.log

8) initial mod_security configuration

After initial installation of mod_security2 you can add mod_security2 rules. For example you can add a core rule, for example add rule to apache conf directory:
/etc/apache2/conf.d/mod_security2# ls

9) adopt log path

SecAuditLog /var/log/apache2/modsec_audit.log
SecDebugLog             /var/log/apache2/modsec_debug.log

10) example: set higher SecDebugLogLevel

# NOTE Debug logging is generally very slow. You should never
#      use values greater than "3" in production.
#      0 - no logging.
#      1 - errors (intercepted requests) only.
#      2 - warnings.
#      3 - notices // default value.
#      4 - details of how transactions are handled.
#      5 - as above, but including information about each piece of information handled.
#      9 - log everything, including very detailed debugging information.

SecDebugLogLevel        5

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